Marigolds - it is difficult, probably, to find a person who would never see these flowers in his life. If practicality is peculiar to you, and you like to combine the useful with the pleasant, then these flowers are a real find for you. After all, in addition to the cheerful and sunny mood that they can radiate with their own appearance, marigolds can help you protect your garden and garden from harmful representatives of the animal kingdom, cure various diseases and improve the taste of many culinary dishes. Among the marigolds can be found and very tiny bushes, no more than 15 cm high, and garden giants, reaching a height of 120 cm.
Marigolds upright are the largest representatives of the numerous genus of marigolds. It is about them that will be discussed in this article.
Marigolds upright are sometimes referred to as African, although the etymology of this popular name is very complicated. After all, by origin, absolutely all species of marigolds known in nature come from the Americas. Why are African?
But the related species of marigolds rejected by the people and is completely called marigolds by the French. The fact is that these flowers, after the conquest of America, came originally in the 16th century to Europe, and more precisely to France. And from there they settled all over the territory of Europe, and then penetrated into Russia. Heat-loving flowers that do not tolerate frost have caused Russian gardeners to associate with distantly hot Africa, and all the marigolds were originally called African. A little later, the rejected marigolds began to be called French, and their former name remained erect.
Description of plants
Marigolds upright belong to typically annual grassy plants for open ground. They form a powerful upright stems with a distinct central shoot. With age, the main stem lignifies at the base. Plant height can be from 30 to 120 cm, but even undersized flowers are distinguished by their great strength. The side shoots are also directed upwards, and this is what distinguishes them, for example, from the deviant marigolds.
The leaves are rather large, pinnately-separated with sharp lanceolate lobes with notches along the edges. Their color can vary from light to dark green. Usually the leaves are arranged in a regular order.
The inflorescences of marigolds upright are formed on long peduncles, and their size can be from 7 to 15 cm in diameter. They, as a rule, are single, have a terry, less often semi-double form.
Bloom an average of 2 to 3 months after sowing the seeds. Among the shades of the colors of marigolds upright, there are white, cream, yellow and orange. Differ mainly monochromatic color of inflorescences, in contrast to the same rejected marigolds. In 1 gram there are about 300 seeds, the germination of which lasts only 1-2 years. Seeds can begin to collect within 35-40 days after the start of flowering.Attention! Marigolds upright also reproduce well by cuttings, cuttings quickly and easily rooted in the sand.
Classification of marigolds
Marigold shrubs are often classified by height.
- Stunted, up to 45 cm in height;
- Medium, from 45 to 60 cm;
- High, from 60 to 90 cm;
- Giants growing above 90 cm in height.
The height among marigold erect also often distinguish:
- casing (low and medium);
- cut-off (most often high varieties that can stand in the cut up to 3 weeks).
Also, all marigolds are usually classified according to the shape of inflorescences:
- Carnations consist mainly of several rows of wide reed flowers, which sometimes grow together and resemble tubular.
- Chrysanthemums consist of strongly overgrown tubular flowers, which can be very dense or, on the contrary, friable, sticking out in different directions.
Distinguish also gustomahrovye, spherical and semi-double inflorescences.
The varieties of marigolds upright differ, primarily, in the size of the bush, in the shape and size of the inflorescences and their color.
Low-growing varieties of upright marigolds appeared to satisfy the constant demand of gardeners for small flowers with huge, luxurious buds that are not tied up and from which, if desired, you can create colorful compositions with other plants.
It is considered the most popular and common undersized hybrid. Appeared one of the first. Despite its modest size in height (25-30 cm), it also grows to 30 cm in width. And its inflorescences reach 10 cm in diameter. It has four colors: yellow, lemon, orange and gold.
Compact bushes with graceful foliage do not grow above 35 cm. The inflorescences are dense-double, spherical, clove-colored, but the petals are curled into tubules. Flowers are rare for marigolds white color.
Munsong (Moon song)
This hybrid is a novelty from American breeders. Dense inflorescences are of such density that they can even repel rain drops. Bushes grow well in width and retain decorative for a long time. The period before flowering is about 3 months. Saturated orange color looks very attractive.
Plants of this variety are characterized by uniformity in habit and height. Flowering begins quite early, 2.5 months after sowing and lasts a long time in any even the most adverse weather conditions.
In this group in height, the leadership is occupied by marigolds rejected, and among the upright varieties the choice is not so big. But those that are worthy of mention.
Aztec Lime Green
The very name of this hybrid hints at the unique lime-greenish color of flowers. Plants are compact and medium in size, although the inflorescences can not be called average, their size in diameter reaches 10-12 cm.
In the color of the flowers of this hybrid dominates the vanilla-white color, and the middle yellow only emphasizes the decorativeness of the inflorescences. The size of the bushes average, 45-50 cm in height, and 30 cm in width. The inflorescences are not the largest - about 7-8 cm in diameter.
The variety is similar in many respects to the previous hybrid, but the inflorescences differ only in a light cream color.
This series is famous, above all, for gigantic sizes of inflorescences that can reach 15 cm or more. Orange and lemon solar giants are found in color. The size of the bushes themselves is more than modest, it does not exceed 50 cm in height.
The largest group in the diversity of varieties. After all, it was from these sizes that the first varieties of marigolds upright began.
One of the most popular varieties of marigolds with white color. Somewhat similar to Eskimo, but the bushes grow to 70 cm in height and look much more powerful.
Golden or light yellow inflorescences of medium size (7-8 cm) have a lush chrysanthemum shape and look very attractive in bouquets.
Bushes high, but compact. Shoots ribbed, have a small reddish bloom. The clove blossoms, although lush, do not reach the shape of the ball. The variety is characterized by late ripening, blooms 3-3.5 months after sowing.
The inflorescences of this variety are also clove-colored, but are notable for their special pomp. Lemon yellow color of inflorescences looks attractive against the background of dark green rugged leaves.
And this variety is able to shake the saturation of the orange hue of its inflorescences, which reach 10-12 cm in diameter.
A series of new varieties of different shades different chrysanthemum lush inflorescences, however, looking slightly disheveled.
Marigolds upright, growing more than a meter in height, will look great in the background of the curb, along with other tall plants such as lion's pharynx, delphinium and foxglove. True, even despite the strong and very strong central trunk, it is desirable to tie up the bushes to the supports or to plant in places protected from the wind.
The variety, despite its impressive size, is quite early. Plants bloom 2.5 months after sowing. The inflorescences of a thick orange shade, chrysanthemum-shaped, reach 8–9 cm in diameter. The gold dollar is characterized by the absence of a peculiar smell characteristic of marigolds.
Also the variety is a giant marigold of upright orange color, but the flowers have a clove-color form and are larger in size, reaching 12-14 cm in diameter.
An attractive light golden shade of inflorescences and a spherical shape make this variety popular both for cutting and growing in flowerbeds.
The Velvet season
This variety appeared quite recently and managed to attract the attention of flower growers, both with its huge size of bushes and inflorescences, which reach a diameter of 15 cm and more. In addition, densely colored globular inflorescences of three different shades stand excellently in cut.
Features of growing
Of all three species of marigolds, most often cultivated in our country, marigolds upright make the highest demands on the quality of soils and the amount of light they need for full flowering. It is best to grow them in a sunny place, in the penumbra they will not be able to demonstrate all their best qualities. Soil for cultivation must be fertile, since giant buds and bushes need a lot of nutrition in order to look good.
Accordingly, the growing season in this species of marigolds is longer. If you want marigolds upright to delight you with flowering from the beginning of June, then you should sow them on seedlings from the beginning of March. They are practically unsuitable for sowing in open ground, except in the southernmost regions of the country. And then in this case, they can bloom only in the second half of summer.Important! To grow about 100 plants you need 0.5 - 1 gram of seeds.
Seeds can be sown in any capacity that is convenient for you, since marigold seedlings easily tolerate transplanting at any age, and even in a flowering state. Shoots usually appear on the 4-6 day, the plants develop optimally at a temperature of + 18 ° + 20 ° C.
If you sowed the seeds quite often, then with the appearance of two true leaves, sprouts should be seated at a distance of 7 cm from each other with a row spacing of 7 cm.
Low-growing and medium varieties can be planted according to the scheme 20x20cm, and for high giants it is necessary to leave at least 40 cm between plants when planting.
When growing should pay attention to the following possible difficulties:
- Marigolds are very thermophilic, die already at -1 ° -2 ° С. If the air temperature is less than + 10 ° C, the plants stop growing, the leaves get a purple hue, flowering decreases.
- At the beginning of growth, plants need an abundance of moisture, after flowering, they can survive up to 10 days without watering.
- In rainy weather, very large terry inflorescences may rot from excessive moisture.
- More demanding on food from all types of marigolds.
- If high temperatures are combined with high humidity, then the bushes will have an abundance of leaves with a minimum of inflorescences.
If possible, be sure to settle in your garden erect marigolds, and these spectacular giants will surely delight you with lush flowering and luxurious bouquets the color of the sun.