Early grape varieties have always been popular with gardeners. When some species are just preparing for fruiting, the early ripening delights with tasty and juicy berries. One of these is the Tukai grape variety, which can often be found in the garden of summer residents. The hybrid is valued for its resistance to low temperatures and unpretentiousness. Consider its description and photo, get acquainted with the features of the cultivation of the vineyard and care for him.
Tukai grape variety bred breeders Research Institute. Ya. I. Potapenko in Novocherkassk. The variety was obtained by crossing two completely different varieties of grapes - Pearls Saba and Yakdona.
Tukay adopted from his predecessors such qualities as frost resistance, precocity and high-yielding. This allows him to plant not only in the southern parts of Russia, but also in the Central, Ural, Siberian and North-West regions of the country.
Description of grapes
Hybrid Tukay is a table variety that brings early harvest and withstands low temperatures. It has excellent taste, good presentation and is intended for fresh consumption.
Bushes and bunches
Tukai grape bushes are vigorous and spreading. Can reach from 1.5 to 3 m in height. On the vine matures a large number of berries, almost the entire length. The leaves are medium in size, egg-shaped, bright green in color, whole edges and a weakly cut middle. In appearance, they are similar to the leaves of the Saba Grape Leaves.
A distinctive feature of the Tukai variety is bisexual flowers. This simplifies the procedure of fertilization. But under adverse weather conditions, the process can be complicated. Flowering brush plants loose and elongated.
Bunches of grapes are large, medium density and cylindrical. On average, their weight is 0.7-0.8 kg, but under favorable conditions, they can reach 1.5 kg.
The grapes are round, small, weighing from 3 to 5 g. Depending on the degree of ripening, they can change color from light green to amber. Under the dense skin is sweet and juicy flesh with a slight sourness. A distinctive feature of the fruit - the presence of notes of nutmeg and a pleasant aroma. Sugar content in grapes is 18%, and acids - 6-7 g / l.
The fruits of Tukai can hang on the vine for a long time, as they are located on strong petioles. They do not crack and not showered. When transporting grapes is not damaged, retains its taste and appearance.
Attention! In order for the grapes to be stored all winter, it must be cleaned in a dry room and the temperature should be kept between 1 and 8 ° C.
To get a complete picture of Tukai grapes, consider some of its features.
Yield and ripening time
Tukai grapes bring a high and high-quality crop, regardless of the weather. Vine of this variety matures by 85-90%. With proper care from one shrub can remove 18-20 kg of berries. Seedlings begin to bear fruit for 2-3 years after planting.
The first harvest of grapes is obtained in 90-100 days after bud break. In the south and southeast of Russia, the fruits ripen in the second half of July. In the central and northern regions of the country, Tukay brings the harvest a little later, the first fruits of the grapes can be tasted in August.
Tukai grapes have many positive aspects:
- gives a high and high-quality harvest;
- ripens early;
- during transportation, it retains its appearance and taste;
- can be stored for a long time;
- tolerates lower temperatures to -25 ° C;
- has a pleasant sweet-sour taste and aroma of nutmeg;
- resistant to gray rot;
- not prone to cracking and sprinkling.
This unpretentious grape variety fell in love with many gardeners who are interested in obtaining an early and tasty harvest.
The Tukai grape variety also has several disadvantages:
- it is necessary to cut the bushes so that they are not overloaded with clusters. If there are a lot of berries, they will become sour and small.
- The pollination process during the rains can be disrupted.
- if the temperature rises above 35 ° C, the development of the grapes slows down and the yield decreases.
- in the harsh climate Tukay bushes need to cover for the winter.
These are minor drawbacks that can be avoided with proper care of the plant and the creation of favorable conditions for it.Tip! For regions with a hot climate, dark grapes are more suitable.
Features of growing
Despite the fact that the Tukay variety has a large number of advantages, it will not be possible to collect a good harvest of grapes without the proper management of agricultural works.
Tukai grapes can be planted in both spring and autumn. It is impossible to do this in the winter months, since the sapling cannot take root because of the cold.
By spring planting you need to start in late April - early May before the buds swell. The earth should warm up. Before winter, the plant will have time to settle down and gain strength.
In autumn, the grapes can be planted from September to mid-October, until the first frosts come. In winter, the plant must be carefully covered. In the spring the Tukaya bush will begin to actively develop and grow.Tip! In the northern regions it is better to plant grapes in spring.
This grape variety prefers sunny and protected from the north winds places. It is recommended to plant it along a fence or a building on the south side.
The composition of the soil Tukay undemanding, but does not like too wet, wetlands and saline sites. Bushes grow well on sandy, limestone and loamy lands.
The root system of grapes grows heavily and goes deep into the soil, so the proximity of groundwater can harm the plant.
In the autumn, it is recommended to dig up the plot, remove weeds and roots. A couple of weeks before planting, it is necessary to dig a hole 85-90 cm deep. At its bottom pour a bucket of black earth with clay. At this stage, you can install irrigation pipe with a diameter of 6 cm. Grape irrigation will be carried out through it.
Then lay a layer of drainage from dry branches and gravel. From above it is filled with humus mixed with black soil and sand in equal proportions. You can also add some ash, superphosphate and potassium salt to this soil mixture. The last level should occupy a third of the deepening.
Tukai bushes can be planted in rows or separately on a solid support. The day before planting the roots of the seedling should be soaked in water or in a solution of growth stimulant.
Rules for planting grapes:
- Pour the prepared landing pit with plenty of water.
- Lower the sapling into the recess so that its two eyes are below ground level.
- Spread out the roots and cover it with a layer of 25-35 cm.
- Water and zamulchirovat vineyard straw, twigs or sawdust.
- Planted stalk to tie and trim 2-3 sheets.
If the landing area Tukaya is characterized by close groundwater, then it is necessary to choose a high bed for it. Around the grape bush should dig a trench for water flow.
Early ripe hybrid Tukay will bring a bountiful harvest at any site if the gardener provides the grapes with regular care: watering, pruning, top dressing.
Since the grape bush has the property to grow strongly and form a multitude of clusters, it is necessary to ensure that the shoots are not overloaded. Otherwise, the fruits do not live up to expectations - they will be sour and small.
With the arrival of spring, weak shoots are cut off, and excess buds are removed. In total, 40-45 eyes should remain on the bush, and no more than 7 on the vine. The grape cuttings that were obtained during pruning can be used for its reproduction. On the stems pinch the upper inflorescences, leaving no more than 4 bunches. Such activities can increase the size of the berries and yield.Attention! In the northern regions, the formation of a grape bush is best dealt with in the autumn after harvesting.
If at planting grapes mineral fertilizers were introduced into the soil, then in the first year you can not feed the plant. Next, every spring in the ground should make rotted manure, and a month before flowering Tukay must be watered with a solution of complex fertilizer.
Nitrogen supplements are necessary during the growth and development of shrubs, and potash supplements are needed to stimulate the growth of berries and improve their taste.
Before flowering, grape leaves can be treated with a solution of superphosphate or a special preparation to improve the ovaries. The procedure is carried out twice with an interval of 15 days. This is done with a spray gun in calm and dry weather.
Watering the grapes of this variety should be rare, but abundant. Depending on the weather conditions and the composition of the soil, it is recommended to be carried out every 30-40 days. In the summer, it is necessary to moisten the soil more often, every 10-15 days. One bush usually accounts for 15 to 30 liters of water. At the same time it is impossible to allow both waterlogging and drying of the ground.
Water for watering Tukay must be separated and warm. It is undesirable to irrigate the plant with cold water, as it is possible to partially lose the crop.Important! Watering the vineyard with a drainage pipe facilitates the process and makes it possible to save time and effort.
Vineyard varieties Tukay resistant to gray rot, but vulnerable to oidium and mildew.
It is important to protect it in time from various diseases and pests:
- To prevent the oidium from damaging the grape bushes, it is necessary to spray its green part with copper sulfate solution. The treatment is carried out in early spring and during the growing season.
- To protect the plant from mildew, it is necessary to conduct timely thinning of the bushes in order to provide airing. The soil around the vineyard should be sprinkled with ash and mulched. It is important to carry out nitrogen fertilization and spraying the foliage of iron sulphate.
- To prevent birds from pecking berries, you need to place scarers near the plant: a bell, a bright cloth or a metal grid.
The Tukai variety can also suffer from thrips and grape pruritus. In order to prevent spraying the plant with special preparations that can save the harvest. Some of them are able to destroy not only adults, but also their larvae.
Igor, 40 years old, Orel. The earliest and favorite grape variety on my site is Tukay. Already in July you can enjoy the sweet and fragrant berries. I never had a problem with him. With standard preventive treatments for 4 years, he never got sick. Last year, Tukay brought eight bunches from 600 to 1.2 kg. The taste of the berries is excellent Olga, 29 years old, Kazan. For comparison, they planted on their land the seedlings of Makdalsky and Tukai. Both have a pronounced nutmeg aroma and harmonious taste. Since the Tukai grapes are larger than the berries and thinner than the skin, left it in the garden. It suits me in everything except pollination. Brushes tied loosely and can sprinkle.
Thanks to the hard work of breeders, you can enjoy the beautiful Tukai grapes. Pleasant nutmeg and precocity attract many gardeners. Subject to the peculiarities of agricultural engineering and care, the grape shrub will produce a bountiful harvest. And with proper storage, its berries can stay fresh until spring.